Around the World in 62 Days: Day 52-56

Around the World in 62 Days

Tere tulemast!  ÜdvözletЛаскаво просимо!  Welcome!

All summer we have been travelling the world, and celebrating the national and independence days of each country as they have happened.  If you have missed any of the events, you can learn more here.  This week we are jetting off to celebrate Independence Day in Afghanistan, Hungary, Estonia, Ukraine and Uruguay – this is bound to be an exciting week!

 

August 19

Afghanistan

200px-Flag_of_Afghanistan.svgAfghanistan is officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan,  a landlocked country located in Central and South Asia that is bordered by PakistanIranTurkmenistanUzbekistan, and Tajikistan, and China.  Through the ages the land has been home to various peoples and witnessed many military campaigns, notably by Alexander the Great, Arab Muslims, Genghis Khan, and in the modern-era by Western powers.  In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the “Great Game” between British India and the Russian Empire.  Afghan Independence Day is celebrated in Afghanistan on 19 August to commemorate the Anglo-Afghan Treaty of 1919. The treaty granted complete independence from Britain; although Afghanistan was never a part of the British Empire. The British fought three wars with Afghanistan.

 

August 20

Hungary

Flag_of_Hungary.svgHungary is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by SlovakiaUkraine, RomaniaSerbia, Croatia,  Slovenia and Austria. On August 20th, each year since 1000 AD, Hungary has celebrated St. Stephen‘s Day, named after their first king and the day of the Foundation of Hungary and “the day of the new bread”. St. Stephen of Hungary (ca. 975 – 15 August 1038), led the country into the Christian church and established the institutions of the kingdom and the church. Celebrated with a half-hour fireworks display on the bank of the Danube in the evening, which is attended by many people on both river banks and is watched by many from the hills on the Buda side of the river.

Estonia

200px-Flag_of_Estonia.svgEstonia is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe and is bordered by the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, Latvia, Lake Peipus and Russia.  Across the Baltic Sea lies Sweden and Finland in the north.  In March 1991 a referendum was held on the issue of independence from the USSR. This was somewhat controversial, as holding a referendum could be taken as signalling that Estonian independence would be established rather than “re”-established, but the referendum produced a strong endorsement for independence.  On 20 August 1991 the Russian 76th Guards Air Assault Division arrived in Tallinn and volunteers organized protection of Toompea and the television broadcast tower. On The Popular Front of Estonia organized a rally in Freedom Square which called for the independence of Estonia. That same day, late in the evening, the Supreme Council of Estonia, along with the leadership of the Estonian Committee agreed an “On the independence of the Estonian state and the establishment of the Constitutional Assembly”, thus proclaiming the restoration of Estonian independence.

Ukraine

Flag_of_Ukraine.svgUkraine borders RussiaBelarusPolandSlovakia, HungaryRomania, Moldova, the Black Sea and Sea of Azov.  On 19 August 1991, conservative Communist leaders of the Soviet Union tried to restore central Communist party control over the USSR. In response, the Supreme Soviet (parliament) of the Ukrainian SSR in a special Saturday session overwhelmingly approved the Act of Declaration. On 24 August, the parliament called for a referendum on support for the Declaration of Independence. In the independence referendum on 1 December 1991, the people of Ukraine expressed widespread support for the Act of Declaration of Independence, with more than 90% voting in favor, and 82% of the electorate participating. Since 1992, the 24th of August is celebrated in Ukraine as Independence Day.

August 25

Uruguay

200px-Flag_of_Uruguay.svgUruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It is bordered by Argentina and Brazil with the Atlantic Ocean to the south and southeast.  Uruguay remained largely uninhabited until the establishment of Colonia del Sacramento, one of the oldest European settlements in the country, by the Portuguese in 1680.  In 1816 a force of 10,000 Portuguese troops invaded the Banda Oriental from Brazil; they took Montevideo in January 1817. After nearly four more years of struggle Portuguese Brazil annexed the Banda Oriental as a province under the name of “Cisplatina”. The Brazilian Empire became independent from Portugal in 1822. In response to the annexation, the Thirty-Three Orientals, led by Juan Antonio Lavalleja, declared independence on 25 August 1825 supported by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (present-day Argentina). This led to the 500-day-long Cisplatine War. Neither side gained the upper hand and in 1828 the Treaty of Montevideo, fostered by the United Kingdom, gave birth to Uruguay as an independent state.

 

Now that you have learned a little more about global events, consider adding one of these courses to your To Learn List:

 

An Updated Map of the Places We’ve Visited Thus Far:

map day 56

Join us next week when we visit Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Moldova and more!

Around the World in 62 Days: Day 36-42

Around the World in 62 Days

Welcome back!  Last week we visited Vanuatu, Benin, Niger and more!  This week we are dashing off to many exciting areas of the world – Bolivia, Singapore, Ecuador and more…Grab your hat and sunglasses and we’re off to travel the world!

 

 

August 6

 

Bolivia

200px-Flag_of_Bolivia_(state).svgBolivia, officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. It is bordered by BrazilParaguay and ArgentinaChile, and Peru. During most of the Spanish colonial period, Bolivia was known as Upper Peru and administered by the Royal Court of Charcas.  After the first call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar, on 6 August 1825.

 

 

 

August 7

Cote d’Ivoire

Flag_of_Côte_d'Ivoire.svgIvory Coast is officially the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire, located in West Africa. It borders LiberiaGuineaMaliBurkina Faso, and Ghana. Prior to its colonization by Europeans, the Ivory Coast was home to several states. There were two Anyi kingdoms, Indénié and Sanwi, which attempted to retain their separate identity through the French colonial period and after independence.  An 1843–44 treaty made Ivory Coast a protectorate of France and in 1893, it became a French colony as part of the European scramble for Africa. Ivory Coast became independent on 7 August 1960.

 

 

August 9

Singapore

200px-Flag_of_Singapore.svgSingapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.  The islands were settled in the second century AD and subsequently belonged to a series of local empires. Modern Singapore was founded in 1819 by Sir Stamford Raffles as a trading post of the East India Company with permission from the Johor Sultanate. The British obtained sovereignty over the island in 1824, and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Occupied by the Japanese during World War II, Singapore declared independence from the United Kingdom in 1963 and united with other former British territories to form Malaysia, from which it was expelled two years later, on 9 August 1965, through a unanimous act of parliament. Since then, Singapore has developed rapidly, earning recognition as one of the Four Asian Tigers.

 

August 10

Ecuador

Flag_of_Ecuador.svgEcuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador is in north western South America, bordered by ColombiaPeru, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Ecuador also includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific.  Ecuador proclaimed independence from Spain on August 10, 1809, but failed when all of the conspirators of the movement were executed on August 2, 1810. On May 24, 1822,  Ecuador gained its independence after Antonio José de Sucre defeated the Spanish Royalist forces. Following this, Ecuador joined Simón Bolívar’s Republic of Gran Colombia and in 1830 it separated again and became an independent republic.

 

 

August 11

 

 

Chad

200px-Flag_of_Chad.svgChad, officially the Republic of Chad, is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by LibyaSudan, the Central African RepublicCameroon, Nigeria and Niger.  Colonized by the French but primarily viewed the colony as an unimportant source of untrained labour and raw cotton. After World War II, France granted Chad the status of overseas territory and its inhabitants the right to elect representatives to the French National Assembly and a Chadian assembly.  Chad was granted independence on 11 August 1960.

 

Now that you have learned a little more about global events, consider adding one of these courses to your To Learn List:

 

 

Around the World in 62 Days

 

We’ve visited 88 countries so far – and we still have another 3 weeks of journeying!  Where to next? Well, next week we will visit Pakistan and India, South Korea, Gabon and many more…  then we will spend some time in Europe, Asia and South America before the end of August!